An introduction to the biology and science.

INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT

BIOLOGY AND SCIENCE

Science is the study of all the natural thing around us be it living or nonliving. Science has projected by breaking down complex subject of study into their component part so that today there are numerous branches of its.

Biology (bios = Life, logos = Knowledge or study) is a branch of science that involves the living things or biology is the branch of science devoted to the study of living organisms. Today there are numerous branches of biology some of which are shown bellows.

MAJOR GROUP OF LIVING THING.

LIVING THING ARE DIVIDED INTO TWO KINGDOM

1. Kingdom Plantae

2. Kingdom Animalae

According to an old system of classification by Cori Linnaeus still being used by some people as mentioned above. Modern system of classification:- classified living thing into five (5) kingdom which are:-

1. Kingdom Protista.

2. Kingdom Monera.

3. Kingdom Fungi.

4. Kingdom Plantae.

5. Kingdom Animalae.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD.

Scientific method is a systematic approach to investigating inquires that arise an observed natural phenomenon.

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD USUALLY INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING STEPS:

1. Observation making

2. Identify problem

3. Formulae Hypothesis

4. Design experiment

5. Conduct experiment

6. Analyst result and draw conclusion

7. Share finding

8. Accept hypothesis

9. Theory

10. Law.

ACCOUNTS OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION.

  • Observation.
  • Hypothesis.
  • Experiment and Procedure.
  • Result / Analysis.
  • Conclusion.

LIVING THINGS AND NON-LIVING THINGS.

Even though we are reduced to the position that we cannot define precisely what life is not when it came. All we can do is to describe the observation or observable phenomena that distinguish living matter from non-living matter. These are known as “Characteristic of living organism”

MR NIGER

1. MOVEMENT/LOCOMOTION:- Generally living thing are capable of carrying out one from of movement or the other. That is to say, some living organism such as animal and some bacterial have the ability to move from one place to another thus is known as “LOCOMOTION” this is necessary in order to lives, unlike animal other organisms, such as plant which can manufactures their own food using some raw material (Light, CO2 and H2O) which stay in one place but their part can move in such of raw material for its own nutrition, this is called “MOVEMENT” (therefore animal = locomotion and movement like plant = only movement).

2. RESPIRATION:- All living organism respire, all living things need energy for their day to day activities. Thus the energy is produce during oxidation of respiratory substance in living cells.

3. NUTRITION:- All living thing feed to provide chemical energy for work and material for growth and normal body function, the nutrient are of two types. Autotrophic for plant and Heterotrophic for animals.

4. IRRITABILITY/SENSIVITY:- This is the ability of living thing to respond to change in external and internal stimuli example light, water, ground, temperature, hunger e.t.c.

5. GROWTH:- Growth is an irreversible enlargement of an organism, when you eat food the food becomes part of the body growth, some non-living thing such as crystal growth. But the growth of crystal is out a true growth. The growth of crystal is by external addition.

6. EXCRETION:- Living thing must get rid of waste substance from the body if waste products are allowed to accumulate in the body; they will cause the death of the organism.

NOTE : Removal of metabolic waste product is called “EXCRETION” egestion and secretion should not be confused with excretion.

Egestion is the removal of solid undigested substances in food, out by product of metabolism e.g stool or passing of stool.

Secretion is the production of useful substances such as enzyme and hormone by metabolic process e.g vomiting

7. REPRODUCTION:- All living organism reproduce their own kinds since life time of living organism is limited, reproduction must be carried out for the continuation of life. Therefore living thing produceeither Asexually or Sexually.

8. COMPETITION:- This is the struggle for survival of the fitness among living things. All living thing struggle for the existence of life. Competition is of two types:

a) INTRA-SPECIES COMPETITION is a competition that exist between organism of the same species e.g Man and woman, Ram and Sheep e.t.c.

b) INTER-SPECIES COMPETITION is a competition that exist between organism of different species living in the same habitant or environmente.g Human being and Animal, Plant and Animal e.t.c.

9. ADAPTATION:- Living thing must have ability to adapt to their environment if they are to survive the exigencies of the unstable earth.

10. LIMITED SIZE:- Each species or organism has its own limited size. For example a Dog can never grow to the size of an Elephant, no matter how well feed a Pigeon it can never grow to the seize of a Turkey.

11. LIFE SPAN:- All living thing has definite period of existence, no organism lives forever when condition become unfavorable for existence ceases, as all living thing pass through the following stages:

  • Original birth
  • Growth.
  • Maturity.
  • Productivity.
  • Ageing.
  • Death.

NON LIVING THING.

Non-living thing have no life in them, such they do not have the characteristic of living things. Such non-living exist as gases (e.g Oxygen, carbon (iv) oxide and Hydrogen, some as liquid (e.g Water, Kerosene while some as solid (e.g Stone, Wood, Iron and Gasses).

SIMILARITY BETWEEN LIVING AND NON-LIVING.

1. Both have mass/weight.

2. Both have shape (i.e. regular or irregular shaped).

3. Both have size (i.e. limited or non-limited size).

INTER-RELATION BETWEEN LIVING AND NON-LIVING THING.

Non-living thing provide nutrient for living things. e.g Green plant manufactured their own food from carbon (iv) oxide and water using sunlight energy which are Non-living things.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIVING AND NON-LIVING THING.

S/NLiving things Non-living things
1. They have life. They have no life.
2. They feed respire and excrete. They do not.
3. They can move or locomote. They cannot move.

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