The classification of living things


A living things pertains to any organism or a life form that possesses or shows the characteristics of life or being alive.

Many Biologist divided living things into five (5) Kingdoms:

1. Kingdom Monera.

2. Kingdom Protista.

3. Kingdom Fungi.

4. Kingdom Plantae.

5. Kingdom Animalia.



1. They are unicellular or single cell.

2. The cell is prokaryotic (i.e cell without membrane).

3. The cell has no definite nucleus, with nuclear membrane.

4. They do not have complex chromosomes.

5. They may be motile or non motile in nature.

6. The cell have no mitochondrial, no Endoplasmic reticulum- andChloroplasts.

7. The cell wall does not contain cellulose, but polysaccharide and amino acids.

8. They is no sexual reproduction.

9. They may process autotrophic or heterophic mode of nutrient.

Monera kingdom is divided mainly into two phyla namely:

A) Schizophyta e.g BacteriaB) Cyanophyta e.g Blue green alga


1. They are unicellular organisms.

2. The organisms are all eukaryotic (i.e cells with membrane).

3. Same members are all mobile other are non- mobile.

4. They move either by cilia, flagella or may be amoeboid by nature.

5. Some of the protista are heterophic (including parasitic forms) while some are both hetetrophic and photosynthetic.

6. Mode of reproduction is usually asexual by mitosis while some have sexual reproduction by fusion of gametes.

There are four phyla in this kingdom which are:

a) Protozoa.

b) Eugleophyta.

c) Chrysophyta.

d) Pyrrophyta.


1. They are microscopic organism.

2. They have eukaryotic cells i.e cells with membrane

3. They produce asexually by binary, fissionThey are mainly aquatic organisms while few are parasitic

4. They are unicellular motile organism

5. The organism in this group move by different organelles e.g Amoeba move by pseudopodia, Paramecium, Trypanosome and Plasmodium move by Cilia.


Euglena is a parasite and a typical example of an organism sharing both the characteristics of plant and animals. However it is a microscopic, unicellular and aquatic organism.


1. Possession of flagellum used for movement

2. Possession of gullet for passage of food and as reservoir

3. Possession of contractile vacuole used for osmo-regulation.

4. Presence of eye spot to enable it to respond to light

5. Possession of pellicle which makes its body flexible

6. Presence of myonemes which do aid movement


1. Possession of chloroplast which enables it to carry out photosynthesis.

2. Possession of Phyrenolds where starch is stored.

3. Presence of Paramylum granules-forms in which starch is stored.

4. It has halophytic (autotrophic) made of nutrition.


The Fungi: were for a long time classified with the plant they however differ from plants in the composition of their cell walls. Most of their cells walls are made up of chitin rather than cellulose.


1. They are eukaryotic. (i.e cell with membranes).

2. Some are unicellular e.g yeast while others are multi-cellular e.g mushroom.

3. They ate mainly non-motile organisms.

4. They have no true roots, stem and leaves.

5. They are non-green plants i.e they lack chlorophyll.

6. They are mainly saprophytes while others are parasite.

7. They store excess food in form of glycogen.

8. They vegetative body part are, made up of fine and delicate threads called hyphae.

9. They reproduce Asexually by formation of spores and some sexually by conjugation.


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