The Kingdom Plantae, Gymnosperm, Angiosperm And The Division Of Angiosperm.

KINGDOM PLANTAE

Kingdom Plantae includes green, brown and red algae, liverworts, mosses, ferns and seed plants with or without flowers.

CHARACTERISTICS:

1. They are eucaryotic (i.e cells with membrane).

2. They are many celled (i.e multi-cellular).

3. They are non-motile organisms.

4. They possess chlorophyll which enable them to carry out photosynthesis.

THE PLANT KINGDOM CONSIST OF THREE MAIN DIVISION (PHYLA) THESE ARE

1. Thellophyta (e.g Green, Brown and Red ) algae respectively.

2. Bryophyta (liverworts and mosses).

3. Tracheophyta (vascular plant).

THALLOPHYTA

4. Rhodophyta (red algae).

5. Chlorophyta (green algae).

6. Phaecophyta (brown algae).

CHARACTERISTICS

1. These are simple microscopic plants.

2. Some are unicellular e.g chlamydomonas, while others are multi-cellular e.g spirogyra.

3. They are simple aquatic plants.

4. They have no true roots, stems and leaves.

5. They have cellular cell walls.

6. Algae are filamentous and the cells are not differentiated into tissues.

7. They have no specialized reproductive organs or cells but can exhibit sexual and asexual means of reproduction. Example include the single free living algae like chlamydomonas of inform of filaments e.g spirogyra or in colonies e.g

BRYOPHYTA

Bryophytes are an informal division that consists of 3 groups of non-vascular plants, namely mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Below are the prominent bryophytes characteristics.

CHARACTERISTICS:

1. They are complex, multi-cellular green plants.

2. Their cells are differentiated into tissues.

3. They lack true roots, stems and leaves but have structures resembling roots, stemsand leaves.

4. They are non-vascular plants.

5. They are usually found growing in moist places.

6. Some bryophytes are terrestrial while others are aquatic.

7. They exhibit asexual reproduction by spores in which there is alternation of generation and sexually by gametes. Examples include mosses and liverwort.

SPERMATOPHYTA

The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phaenogams, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or land plants.

CHARACTERISTICS:

1. They are multi-cellular, seed producing flowering plants.

2. They are vascular plant and have well developed vascular tissue.

3. They have true roots, stems and leave.

4. They reproduce sexually and do not need water for reproduction.

5. They are mainly terrestrial green plants.

6. Spermatophyte is divided into two main classes which are:

  • Gymnosperms.
  • Angiosperm.

GYMNOSPERMS

Gymnosperms are a relatively small group of plants that do not flower and bear “naked seeds.” This means that the seeds are produced on the surface of the reproductive structure, rather than enclosed within it as in a fruit.

CHARACTERISTICS:

1. These are plant with naked seeds.

2. They do not bear flowers.

3. They have true roots, stems and leaves.

4. They seeds are borne on special structure called cones.

5. They are vascular green plants.

Examples are: pine, cycads, gingkos and conifers.

ANGIOSPERM

An angiosperm is a plant of a large group that comprises those that have flowers and produce seeds enclosed within a carpel, including herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees.

CHARACTERISTICS:

1. They are the most complex green flowering plants.

2. They are vascular plants.

3. They have well developed and complete flowers.

4. They are seed plants with seeds enclosed in the fruit.

5. They are mainly terrestrial plants.

6. They show more specialized reproductive mechanism involving pollination and fertilization.

IN THE TABLE BELOW ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GYMNOSPERM AND ANGIOSPERM

S/NGYMNOSPERM ANGIOSPERMS
1. They do not bear flowers. They bear flowers.
2. Seeds are naked. Seeds are enclosed.
3. Seeds are borne on cones. Seeds develop from ovules and enclosed in the ovary.

DIVISION OF ANGIOSPERM

These are:

  • Dicotyledonous plants.
  • Monocotyledonous plants.

DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANT

1. They best speed which have two seed leaves or cotyledons.

2. The vascular bundles of each stem are arranged in regular pattern.

3. Their floral part exist in groups of four or five.

4. The leaves have veins arranged in branched network.

5. They have taproot system.

6. They usually undergo secondary growth.

Example are: Mango, Orange, Cowpea, Groundnut and balsam plant.

MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANT

1. They beat seeds which have only one seed leaf (cotyledon).

2. The vascular bundles of the stem are scattered.

3. Their floral parts exist in groups of three or multiples of three.

4. Their leaves have being running parallel to one another.

5. They have fibrous root system.

Example are: Maize, Rice, Oil Palm, Guinea Grass etc.

1. Flowers: flowers are responsible for reproduction.

2. Leaves: It aids in excretion and also helps in transpiration.

3. Stem: It gives support to plant and manufacture of food.

4. Root: It adsorbs water and dissolved mineral from soil.

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