Pollution is defined as the release of toxic or harmful substances into the environment by their natural forces or man and other animals or an extent that cause biological damage to man and his resources. The harmful substances that cause pollution in the environment are called Pollutants.
TYPES OF POLLUTION
1. Air pollution.
2. Noise pollution.
3. Land pollution.
4. Water pollution.
1. Air Pollutant: Carbon monoxide.
- Sources: Burning of fuel in cars and other combustion engines.
- Effects: it causes suffocation because it combines with Haemoglobin.
2. Smoke and Soot:
- Sources: Burning or substances from industries, machines and coal into the air.
- Effect: (i.) Particles can damage lungs and causes discomfort. (ii.) Smoke reduces visibility.
3. Dust particles:
- Sources: Mining quarries, machines and industries processes.
- Effect: It irritates respiratory system and causes diseases such as catarrh and cough.
CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION
1. Condition must be created for complete combustion of fuel in internal combustion engines.
2. Chemical waste should be discharged into the air trough fume chambers.
3. Industries should be sited far away from residential areas.
|S/N||SOURCES||EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION|
|1.||Factory or industrial noise||It causes deafness and hearing|
|2.||Aeroplane or industrial noise||It causes emotional disorder, anxiety or lack of concentration|
|3.||Noise from generators||It causes high blood pressure|
|4.||Thunder noise||It causes high blood pressure|
|5.||Car horns and sirens||It can also cause changes in behaviours|
CONTROL OF NOISE POLLUTION
1. There should be reduction of noise from loud speakers and car sirens.
2. Legislation should be made against the use of loud speakers in public places.
3. Ban on the use of heavy guns be placed.
1. Land Pollutant: Refuse and Markets
- Sources: Home, Offices and Industries
- Effects: It causes offensive odor when the refuse decay
2. Crude oil (Oil Spillage):
- Sources: Oil drilling, loading or unloading of oil tankers
- Effect: (i.) It destroys soil and reduce it’s fertility. (ii.) It destroy plant and animal’s life in water.
3. Glass Particles:
- Sources: Glass manufacturing or industries using bottles
- Effect: (i.) It can cause injury to human skin or body. (ii.) It does not decay hence it prevents proper land use.
CONTROL OF LAND POLLUTION
1. Refuse should be burnt in incinerators.
2. Urban wastes should be properly burnt or buried.
3. Sewage should be properly treated before disposal.
4. Metal scraps, tin, bottles, motor vehicle parts should be recycled.
1. Water Pollutant: Sewage.
- Sources: City sewage system.
- Effects: It support the growth of pathogens that cause disease e.g. Cholera.
2. Crude oil (Oil Spillage):
- Sources: Oil drilling, loading or unloading of oil tankers.
- Effect: (i.) It destroyed plant and animals. (ii.) It leads to migration of animals.
3. Excreta or faces:
- Sources: Human and Animals.
- Effect: (i.) It produces unpleasant odor. (ii.) It’s medium for the breeding pathogens.
4. Chemical wastes:
- Sources: Industries and Ship at harbors.
- Effect: (i.) It can kills aquatic organisms. (ii.) It makes water to unfit for the human consumption.
CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION
1. There should be sufficient and proper sewage disposal system.
2. Dumping of refuse or petro-chemical by product into rivers, streams, or seas should be avoided.
3. There should be efficient techniques to deal with or prevent oil spillage.
4. Industries should be sited far away from residential areas.
METHOD OF PURIFYING WATER
- Addition of chemicals e.g Alum or Chlorine.
- Sedimentation and Boiling.
- Sterilization e.g by using U.V Light.
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCE
Conservation is defined as the planned, control exploitation or judicious use of natural resources to ensure their continuous availability and to preserve the quality or original nature of an environment.
In other words conservation is the preservation of natural resources from loss waste or exploitation through rational use and to ensure their continued use or availability and preserved the quality or original nature of the natural resources.
Natural resources can be Renewable or Non-renewable
RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES: These are natural resources that are recoverable. Example are Animals, Plants, Water, Air, Food and Soil.
NON-RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES: These are resources which when exhausted cannot be replaced or recovered.
Examples: They are mainly mineral resources like Petroleum, Coal, Tin and Copper.
NEED OR REASONS FOR CONSERVATION
- To prevent destruction of natural environment or to allow foe continued use of natural resources for man’s benefits.
- To preserve naturally beautiful sceneries for their aesthetic values.
- To promote the recycling of some scare mineral resources e.g. Water.
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