The term micro-organisms and it’s group.

MICRO-ORGANISMS

Micro-organisms are tiny organisms which cannot be seen with the naked eyes except with the aid of microscopes. The branch of biology which involves the study of organisms which are microscopic in sizes is called Microbiology.

Micro-organisms are found everywhere in the Soil, Air, Water In Our Clothes, Bodies Inside Our Bodies e.t.c. Some of the microorganisms are beneficial, harmless or non-pathogenic, while others cause disease and are referred to as Pathogenic and therefore harmful.

GROUPS OF MICRO-ORGANISMS

  1. Viruses.
  2. Bacterial.
  3. Protozoa.
  4. Fungi.
  5. Algae.

VIRUSES

Viruses are micro-organisms that are too tiny to be seen with ordinary microscopes. Viruses are the simplest and the smallest micro-organisms which do not have a cell structure. Some are rod like in shape while some others are spherical. Each cell consists of a strand of nuclear protein. Virus may be grouped into DNA and RNA viruses. Some may be enveloped or without envelop i.e they are naked and can be reproduced inside a living cell.

Examples are: Adenovirus, Picornavirus, Toga virus and Corona virus.

BACTERIAL

Bacterial are microorganisms that can easily be seen with light microscope, they occur in clusters or colonies. A bacterium has Tiny Capsule, Cell Wall, Cell Membrane, Dense Cytoplasmic, Nuclear With No Nucleus But Has A Nuclear Membrane called DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) which spread through the cell.

TYPES OF BACTERIAL

Bacterial are grouped into two majors types these are:

1. BACTERIAL ON THE BASIS OF THE USE OF OXYGEN: These are bacterial which do not require oxygen for their respiration.

2. FALCULTATIVE BACTERIAL: These are bacterial that can live under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

3. BACTERIAL ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SHAPE: Under this group, there are existed different shapes of bacterial. These are:

  • COCCI: Cocci are circular in shape, some may stick together to form a chain, hence they are called Streptococco, e.g. Sore throat bacterial. Other which occurs as bunch or in cluster form are called Staphylococci, e.g. Boil bacterial. Yet some other bacterial called Diplococci stick together in pairs e.g. Bacteria that cause pneumonia. Again when bacterial occur in group of four, they are known as Tetrads.
  • BACILLI: These bacterial are rod-like shape. Some have flagella which they use for movement e.g. Bacteria that cause Typhoid fever.
  • VIBRO: Vibro are curved in shape, just like a Comma e.g. Cholera bacteria.
  • SPIRILLAE: Spirillae are Spiral and Twisted bacteria. Some are mobile e.g. Syphilis bacteria.

PROTOZOA

Protozoa is an informal term for a group of single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, that feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

FUNGI

Fungus, plural fungi, any of about 144,000 known species of organisms of the kingdom Fungi, which includes the yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms. There are also many funguslike organisms, including slime molds and oomycetes (water molds), that do not belong to kingdom Fungi but are often called fungi.

ALGAE

Algae are defined as a group of predominantly aquatic, photosynthetic, and nucleus-bearing organisms that lack the true roots, stems, leaves, and specialized multicellular reproductive structures of plants.

VECTORS

Vector is any organism that is not a disease causing agent but a carrier of disease causing agent or an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another.

S/NVECTOR OR CARRIERMICRO-ORGANISMSDISEASE CAUSED
1.Anopheles (Female mosquito) PlasmodiumMalaria Fever
2.Tse-tse flyTrypanosomeSleeping Sickness
3.House-flyVibro Cholera Cholera aand Typhoid Fever
4.Rat fflea / Body louseRickettsiaTyphus
5.Aedes Mosquito VirusYellow & Dengue Fever
6.Rat FleasBacteriumPlague

CONTROL OF DIFFERENT VECTORS

1. CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES

  • Draining of sewage.
  • Clearing bushes around houses.
  • Sleeping in room protected by mosquito net.
  • Spray rooms with insecticides.

2. CONTROL OF HOUSEFLIES

  • Spraying insecticides.
  • Destruction of breeding materials.
  • Keeping environment clean.
  • Closing Pit toilet.

3. CONTROL OF BLACKFLIES

  • Clearing bushes around the house.
  • Fumigating with insecticides.
  • Destruction of breeding materials.
  • Proper monitoring of water bodies.

4. PROTECTION OF FOOD

  • Keep food in refrigerators or deep freezers.
  • Boil or cook raw food properly before eating.
  • There should be inspection of food meant for public consumption.

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